Friday, February 22, 2008

Adi Parva - Sambhava Parva 03

"Janamejaya said, 'O worshipful one, I wish to hear from thee in detail
about the birth, among men, of the gods, the Danavas, the Gandharvas, the
Rakshasas, the lions, the tigers, and the other animals, the snakes, the
birds, and in fact, of all creatures. I wish also to hear about the acts
and achievements of those, in due order, after they became incarnate in
human forms.'

"Vaisampayana said, 'O king of men, I shall first tell thee all about
those celestials and Danavas that were born among men--The first of
Danavas, who was known by the name of Viprachitti, became that bull among
men, noted as Jarasandha. And, O king, that son of Diti, who was known as
Hiranyakasipu, was known in this world among men as the powerful
Sisupala. He who had been known as Samhlada, the younger brother of
Prahlada, became among men the famous Salya, that bull amongst Valhikas.
The spirited Anuhlada who had been the youngest became noted in the world
as Dhrishtaketu. And, O king, that son of Diti who had been known as Sivi
became on earth the famous monarch Druma. And he who was known as the
great Asura Vashkala became on earth the great Bhagadatta. The five great
Asuras gifted with great energy, Ayahsira, Aswasira, the spirited
Aysanku, Gaganamurdhan, and Vegavat, were all born in the royal line of
Kekaya and all became great monarchs. That other Asura of mighty energy
who was known by the name of Ketumat became on earth the monarch
Amitaujas of terrible deeds. That great Asura who was known as Swarbhanu
became on earth the monarch Ugrasena of fierce deeds. That great Asura
who was known as Aswa became on earth the monarch Asoka of exceeding
energy and invincible in battle. And, O king, the younger brother of Aswa
who was known as Aswapati, a son of Diti, became on earth the mighty
monarch Hardikya. The great and fortunate Asura who was known as
Vrishaparvan became noted on earth as king Dirghaprajna. And, O king, the
younger brother of Vrishaparvan who was known by the name of Ajaka became
noted on earth as king Salwa. The powerful and mighty Asura who was known
as Aswagriva became noted on earth as king Rochamana. And, O king, the
Asura who was known as Sukshma, endued with great intelligence and whose
achievements also were great, became on earth the famous king
Vrihadratha. And that first of Asuras who was known by the name of
Tuhunda, became noted on earth as the monarch, Senavindu. That Asura of
great strength who was known as Ishupa became the monarch Nagnajita of
famous prowess. The great Asura who was known as Ekachakra became noted
on earth as Pritivindhya. The great Asura Virupaksha capable of
displaying various modes of fight became noted on earth as king
Chitravarman. The first of Danavas, the heroic Hara, who humbled the
pride of all foes became on earth the famous and fortunate Suvahu. The
Asura Suhtra of great energy and the destroyer of foemen, became noted on
earth as the fortunate monarch, Munjakesa. That Asura of great
intelligence called Nikumbha, who was never vanquished in battle was born
on earth as king Devadhipa, the first among monarchs. That great Asura
known amongst the sons of Diti by the name of Sarabha became on earth the
royal sage called Paurava. And, O king, the great Asura of exceeding
energy, the fortunate Kupatha, was born on earth as the famous monarch
Suparswa. The great Asura, O king, who was called Kratha, was born on
earth as the royal sage Parvateya of form resplendent like a golden
mountain. He amongst the Asura who was known as Salabha the second,
became on earth the monarch Prahlada in the country of the Valhikas. The
foremost, among the sons of Diti known by the name of Chandra and
handsome as the lord of the stars himself, became on earth noted as
Chandravarman, the king of the Kamvojas. That bull amongst the Danavas
who was known by the name of Arka became on earth, O king, the royal sage
Rishika. That best of Asuras who was known as Mritapa became on earth, O
best of kings, the monarch, Pascimanupaka. That great Asura of surpassing
energy known as Garishtha became noted on earth as king Drumasena. The
great Asura who was known as Mayura became noted on earth as the monarch
Viswa. He who was the younger brother of Mayura and called Suparna became
noted on earth as the monarch, Kalakirti. The mighty Asura who was known
as Chandrahantri became on earth the royal sage Sunaka. The great Asura
who was called Chandravinasana became noted on earth as the monarch,
Janaki. That bull amongst the Danavas, O prince of the Kuru race, who was
called Dhirghajihva, became noted on earth as Kasiraja. The Graha who was
brought forth by Sinhika and who persecuted the Sun and the Moon became
noted on earth as the monarch Kratha. The eldest of the four sons of
Danayu, who was known by the name of Vikshara, became known on earth the
spirited monarch, Vasumitra. The second brother of Vikshara, the great
Asura, was born on earth as the king of the country, called Pandya. That
best of Asuras who was known by the name of Valina became on earth the
monarch Paundramatsyaka. And, O king, that great Asura who was known as
Vritra became on earth the royal sage known by the name of Manimat. That
Asura who was the younger brother of Vritra and known as Krodhahantri
became noted on earth as king Danda. That other Asura who was known by
the name Krodhavardhana became noted on earth as the monarch, Dandadhara.
The eight sons of the Kaleyas that were born on earth all became great
kings endued with the prowess of tigers. The eldest of them all became
king Jayatsena in Magadha. The second of them, in prowess, like Indra,
became noted on earth as Aparajita. The third of them, endued with great
energy and power of producing deception, was born on earth as the king of
the Nishadas gifted with great prowess. That other amongst them who was
known as the fourth was noted on earth as Srenimat, that best of royal
sages. That great Asura amongst them who was the fifth, became noted on
earth as king Mahanjas, the oppressor of enemies. That great Asura
possessing great intelligence who was the sixth of them became noted on
earth as Abhiru, that best of royal sages. The seventh of them became
known throughout earth, from the centre to the sea, as king Samudrasena
well acquainted with the truths of the scriptures. The eighth of the
Kaleyas known as Vrihat became on earth a virtuous king ever engaged in
the good of all creatures. The mighty Danava known by the name of Kukshi
became on earth as Parvatiya from his brightness as of a golden mountain.
The mighty Asura Krathana gifted with great energy became noted on earth
as the monarch Suryaksha. The great Asura of handsome features known by
the name of Surya, became on earth the monarch of the Valhikas by name
Darada, that foremost of all kings. And, O king, from the tribe of Asuras
called Krodhavasa, of whom I have already spoken to thee, were born many
heroic kings on earth. Madraka, and Karnaveshta, Siddhartha, and also
Kitaka; Suvira, and Suvahu, and Mahavira, and also Valhika, Kratha,
Vichitra, Suratha, and the handsome king Nila; and Chiravasa, and
Bhumipala; and Dantavakra, and he who was called Durjaya; that tiger
amongst kings named Rukmi; and king Janamejaya, Ashada, and Vayuvega, and
also Bhuritejas; Ekalavya, and Sumitra, Vatadhana, and also Gomukha; the
tribe of kings called the Karushakas, and also Khemadhurti; Srutayu, and
Udvaha, and also Vrihatsena; Kshema, Ugratirtha, the king of the
Kalingas; and Matimat, and he was known as king Iswara; these first of
kings were all born of the Asura class called Krodhavasa.

"There was also born on earth a mighty Asura known amongst the Danavas by
the name of Kalanemi, endued with great strength, of grand achievements,
and blessed with a large share of prosperity. He became the mighty son of
Ugrasena and was known on earth by the name of Kansa. And he who was
known among the Asuras by the name of Devaka and was besides in splendour
like unto Indra himself, was born on earth as the foremost king of the
Gandharvas. And, O monarch, know thou that Drona, the son of Bharadwaja,
not born of any woman, sprung from a portion of the celestial Rishi
Vrihaspati of grand achievements. And he was the prince of all bowmen,
conversant with all weapons, of mighty achievements, of great energy.
Thou shouldst know he was also well-acquainted with the Vedas and the
science of arms. And he was of wonderful deeds and the pride of his race.
And, O king, his son the heroic Aswatthaman, of eyes like the
lotus-petals, gifted with surpassing energy, and the terror of all foes,
the great oppressor of all enemies, was born on earth, of the united
portions of Mahadeva, Yama, Kama, and Krodha. And from the curse of
Vasishtha and the command also of Indra, the eight Vasus were born of
Ganga by her husband Santanu. The youngest of them was Bhishma, the
dispeller of the fears of the Kurus, gifted with great intelligence,
conversant with the Vedas, the first speakers, and the thinner of the
enemy's ranks. And possessed of mighty energy and the first of all
persons acquainted with weapons, he encountered the illustrious Rama
himself, the son of Jamadagni of the Bhrigu race. And, O king, that
Brahman sage who, on earth, was known by the name of Kripa and was the
embodiment of all manliness was born of the tribe of the Rudras. And the
mighty chariot-fighter and king who on earth was known by the name of
Sakuni, that crusher of foes, thou shouldst know, O king, was Dwapara
himself (the third yuga). And he who was Satyaki of sure aim, that
upholder of the pride of Vrishni race, that oppressor of foes, begotten
of the portion of gods called the Maruts. And that royal sage Drupada who
on earth was a monarch, the first among all persons bearing arms, was
also born of the same tribe of the celestials. And, O king, thou shouldst
also know that Kritavarman, that prince among men, of deeds unsurpassed
by any one, and the foremost of all bulls amongst Kshatriyas, was born of
the portion of the same celestials. And that royal sage also, Virata by
name, the scorcher of the kingdoms of others, and the great oppressor of
all foes, was born of the portion of the same gods. That son of Arishta
who was known by the name of Hansa, was born in the Kuru race and became
the monarch of the Gandharvas. He who was known as Dhritarashtra born of
the seed of Krishna-Dwaipayana, and gifted with long arms and great
energy, also a monarch, of the prophetic eye, became blind in consequence
of the fault of his mother and the wrath of the Rishi. His younger
brother who was possessed of great strength and was really a great being
known as Pandu, devoted to truth and virtue, was Purity's self. And, O
king, thou shouldst know that he who was known on earth as Vidura, who
was the first of all virtuous men, who was the god of Justice himself,
was the excellent and greatly fortunate son of the Rishi Atri. The
evil-minded and wicked king Duryodhana, the destroyer of the fair fame of
the Kurus, was born of a portion of Kali on earth. He it was who caused
all creatures to be slain and the earth to be wasted; and he it was who
fanned the flame of hostility that ultimately consumed all. They who had
been the sons of Pulastya (the Rakshasas) were born on earth among men of
Duryodhana's brothers, that century of wicked individuals commencing with
Duhasasana as their first. And, O bull among the Bharata princes,
Durmukha, Duhsaha, and others whose names I do not mention, who always
supported Duryodhana (in all his schemes), were, indeed, the sons of
Pulastya. And over and above these hundred, Dhritarashtra had one son
named Yuyutsu born of a Vaisya wife.'

"Janamejaya said, 'O illustrious one, tell me the names of
Dhritarashtra's sons according to the order of their birth beginning from
the eldest.'

"Vaisampayana said, 'O king, they are as follows: Duryodhana, and
Yuyutsu, and also Duhsasana; Duhsaha and Duhshala, and then Durmukha;
Vivinsati, and Vikarna, Jalasandha, Sulochna, Vinda and Anuvinda,
Durdharsha, Suvahu, Dushpradharshana; Durmarshana, and Dushkarna, and
Karna; Chitra and Vipachitra, Chitraksha, Charuchitra, and Angada,
Durmada, and Dushpradharsha, Vivitsu, Vikata, Sama; Urananabha, and
Padmanabha, Nanda and Upanandaka; Sanapati, Sushena, Kundodara; Mahodara;
Chitravahu, and Chitravarman, Suvarman, Durvirochana; Ayovahu, Mahavahu,
Chitrachapa and Sukundala, Bhimavega, Bhimavala, Valaki, Bhimavikrama,
Ugrayudha, Bhimaeara, Kanakayu, Dridhayudha, Dridhavarman, Dridhakshatra
Somakirti, Anadara; Jarasandha, Dridhasandha, Satyasandha, Sahasravaeh;
Ugrasravas, Ugrasena, and Kshemamurti; Aprajita, Panditaka, Visalaksha,
Duradhara, Dridhahasta, and Suhasta, Vatavega, and Suvarchasa;
Adityaketu, Vahvasin, Nagadatta and Anuyaina; Nishangi, Kuvachi, Dandi,
Dandadhara, Dhanugraha; Ugra, Bhimaratha, Vira, Viravahu, Alolupa;
Abhaya, and Raudrakarman, also he who was Dridharatha; Anadhrishya,
Kundaveda, Viravi, Dhirghalochana; Dirghavahu; Mahavahu; Vyudhoru,
Kanakangana; Kundaja and Chitraka. There was also a daughter named
Duhsala who was over and above the hundred. And Yuyutsu who was
Dhritarashtra's son by a Vaisya wife, was also over and above the
hundred. Thus, O king, have I recited the names of the hundred sons and
also that of the daughter (of Dhritarashtra). Thou hast now known their
names according to the order of their births. All of them were heroes and
great car-warriors, and skilled in the art of warfare. Besides, all of
them were versed in the Vedas, and, O king, all of them had got through
the scriptures. All of them were mighty in attack and defence, and all
were graced with learning. And, O monarch, all of them had wives suitable
to them in grace and accomplishments. And, O king, when the time came,
the Kaurava monarch bestowed his daughter Duhsala on Jayadratha, the king
of the Sindhus, agreeably to the counsels of Sakuni.

"And, O monarch, learn that king Yudhishthira was a portion of Dharma;
that Bhimasena was of the deity of wind; that Arjuna was of Indra, the
chief of the celestials; and that Nakula and Sahadeva, the handsomest
beings among all creatures, and unrivalled for beauty on earth, were
similarly portions of the twin Aswins. And he who was known as the mighty
Varchas, the son of Soma, became Abhimanyu of wonderful deeds, the son of
Arjuna. And before his incarnation, O king, the god Soma had said these
words to the celestials, 'I cannot give (part with) my son. He is dearer
to me than life itself. Let this be the compact and let it be not
transgressed. The destruction of the Asuras on earth is the work of the
celestials, and, therefore, it is our work as well. Let this Varchas,
therefore, go thither, but let him not stay there long. Nara, whose
companion is Narayana, will be born as Indra's son and indeed, will be
known as Arjuna, the mighty son of Pandu. This boy of mine shall be his
son and become a mighty car-warrior in his boyhood. And let him, ye best
of immortals, stay on earth for sixteen years. And when he attaineth to
his sixteenth year, the battle shall take place in which all who are born
of your portions shall achieve the destruction of mighty warriors. But a
certain encounter shall take place without both Nara and Narayana (taking
any part in it). And, indeed, your portions, ye celestials, shall fight,
having made that disposition of the forces which is known by the name of
the Chakra-vyuha. And my son shall compel all foes to retreat before him.
The boy of mighty arms having penetrated the impenetrable array, shall
range within it fearlessly and send a fourth part of the hostile force,
in course of half a day, unto the regions of the king of the dead. Then
when numberless heroes and mighty car-warriors will return to the charge
towards the close of the day, my boy of mighty arms, shall reappear
before me. And he shall beget one heroic son in his line, who shall
continue the almost extinct Bharata race.' Hearing these words of Soma,
the dwellers in heaven replied, 'So be it.' And then all together
applauded and worshipped (Soma) the king of stars. Thus, O king, have I
recited to thee the (particulars of the) birth of thy father's father.

"Know also, O monarch, that the mighty car-warrior Dhrishtadyumna was a
portion of Agni. And know also that Sikhandin, who was at first a female,
was (the incarnation of) a Rakshasa. And, O bull in Bharata's race, they
who became the five sons of Draupadi, those bulls amongst the Bharata
princes, were the celestials known as the Viswas. Their names were
Pritivindhya, Sutasoma, Srutakirti, Satanika, Nakula, and Srutasena,
endued with mighty energy.

"Sura, the foremost of the Yadus, was the father of Vasudeva. He had a
daughter called Pritha, who for her beauty, was unrivalled on earth. And
Sura, having promised in the presence of fire that he would give his
firstborn child to Kuntibhoja, the son of his paternal aunt, who was
without offspring, gave his daughter unto the monarch in expectation of
his favours. Kuntibhoja thereupon made her his daughter. And she became,
thenceforth, in the house of her (adoptive) father, engaged in attending
upon Brahmanas and guests. One day she had to wait upon the wrathful
ascetic of rigid vows, Durvasa by name, acquainted with truth and fully
conversant with the mysteries of religion. And Pritha with all possible
care gratified the wrathful Rishi with soul under complete control. The
holy one, gratified with the attentions bestowed on him by the maiden,
told her, 'I am satisfied, O fortunate one, with thee! By this mantra
(that I am about to give thee), thou shall be able to summon (to thy
side) whatever celestials thou likest. And, by their grace, shall thou
also obtain children.' Thus addressed, the girl (a little while after),
seized with curiosity, summoned, during the period of her maiden-hood,
the god Surya. And the lord of light thereupon made her conceive and
begot on her a son who became the first of all wielders of weapons. From
fear of relatives she brought forth in secrecy that child who had come
out with ear-rings and coat of mail. And he was gifted with the beauty of
a celestial infant, and in splendour was like unto the maker of day
himself. And every part of his body was symmetrical and well-adorned. And
Kunti cast the handsome child into the water. But the child thus thrown
into the water was taken up by the excellent husband of Radha and given
by him to his wife to be adopted by her as their son. And the couple gave
him the name of Vasusena, by which appellation the child soon became
known all over the land. And, as he grew up, he became very strong and
excelled in all weapons. The first of all successful persons, he soon
mastered the sciences. And when the intelligent one having truth for his
strength recited the Vedas, there was nothing he would not then give to
the Brahmanas. At that time Indra, the originator of all things, moved by
the desire of benefiting his own son Arjuna, assumed the guise of a
Brahmana, came to him, and begged of the hero his ear-rings and natural
armour. And the hero taking off his ear-rings and armour gave them unto
the Brahmana. And Sakra (accepting the gift) presented to the giver a
dart, surprised (at his open handedness), and addressed him in these
words, 'O invincible one, amongst the celestials, Asuras, men,
Gandharvas, Nagas, and Rakshasas, he at whom thou hurlest (this weapon),
that one shall certainly be slain.' And the son of Surya was at first
known in the world by the name of Vasusena. But, for his deeds, he
subsequently came to be called Karna. And because that hero of great fame
had taken off his natural armour, therefore was he--the first son of
Pritha--called Kama. And, O best of kings, the hero began to grow up in
the Suta caste. And, O king, know thou that Kama--the first of all
exalted men--the foremost of all wielders of weapons--the slayer of
foes--and the best portion of the maker of day--was the friend and
counsellor of Duryodhana. And he, called Vasudeva, endued with great
valour, was among men a portion of him called Narayana--the god of
gods--eternal. And Valadeva of exceeding strength was a portion of the
Naga, Sesha. And, O monarch, know that Pradyumna of great energy was
Sanatkumara. And in this way the portion of various other dwellers in
heaven became exalted men in the race of Vasudeva, increasing the glory
thereof. And, O king, the portions of the tribe of Apsaras which I have
mentioned already, also became incarnate on earth according to Indra's
commands--And sixteen thousand portions of those goddesses became, O
king, in this world of men, the wives of Vasudeva. And a portion of Sri
herself became incarnate on earth, for the gratification of Narayana, in
the line of Bhishmaka. And she was by name the chaste Rukmini. And the
faultless Draupadi, slender-waisted like the wasp, was born of a portion
of Sachi (the queen of the celestials), in the line of Drupada. And she
was neither low nor tall in stature. And she was of the fragrance of the
blue lotus, of eyes large as lotus-petals, of thighs fair and round, of
dense masses of black curly hair. And endued with every auspicious
feature and of complexion like that of the emerald, she became the
charmer of the hearts of five foremost of men. And the two goddesses
Siddhi and Dhriti became the mothers of those five, and were called Kunti
and Madri. And she who was Mati became the daughter (Gandhari) of Suvala.

"Thus, O king, have I recited to thee all about the incarnation,
according to their respective portions, of the gods, the Asuras, the
Gandharvas, the Apsaras, and of the Rakshasas. They who were born on
earth as monarchs invincible in battle, those high-souled ones who were
born in the wide extended line of the Yadus, they who were born as mighty
monarchs in other lines, they who were born as Brahmanas and Kshatriyas
and Vaisyas, have all been recited by me duly. And this account of the
incarnation (of superior beings according to their respective portions)
capable of bestowing wealth, fame, offspring, long life, and success,
should always be listened to in a proper frame of mind. And having
listened to this account of incarnation, according to their portions, of
gods, Gandharvas, and Rakshasas, the hearer becoming acquainted with the
creation, preservation, and destruction of the universe and acquiring
wisdom, is never cast down even under the most engrossing sorrows.'"

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